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LCA Journal Publication

Updated: Sep 1, 2023

A journal paper authored by EKMOA members has been published.

Certainly, we would like to share some joyful news that our association's name has been featured in the first academic paper published in "Science of the Total Environment." (IF: 9.8, Q1)

This paper was authored based on research conducted by our Financial Director, Mr. Ha Seungman, during his doctoral studies at Strathclyde.

The paper addresses the comprehensive environmental assessment of energy (fuel) imports to South Korea, and its related content has also been introduced at IMO MEPC 80.

This achievement is truly significant for our association, and we are pleased to share it with you all. You will find some details as below:

[Paper Title]

A framework for determining the life cycle GHG emissions of fossil marine fuels in countries reliant on imported energy through maritime transportation: A case study of South Korea


Seungman Ha, Byongug Jeong, Hayoung Jang, Chybyung Park*, Byungchurl Ku


Science of the Total Environment (IF: 9.8, Q1)

[download link]



This research was motivated to address limitations in the current lifecycle assessment frameworks with the absence of proper guidelines for developing default lifecycle values of energies in consideration of supply chain activities and maritime transportation. Given this, it aims to evaluate the level of life cycle GHG emissions of heavy fuel oil, LNG, LPG and methanol as marine fuels produced and supplied in energy import-dependent countries, using South Korea as a case study. The analysis clearly shows that the impact of international shipping on Well-to-Tank (WtT) GHG emissions for energy carriers would be subject to several factors: propulsion system types, the quantify of energy transported, and the routes and distances of voyages. For instance, transportation emissions from LNG carriers for LNG fuel vary significantly depending on the country of import, ranging from 2.26 g CO2 eq./MJ (representing 12.2 % of Well-to-Tank (WtT) emissions for Malaysia) to 5.97 g CO2 eq./MJ (representing 33.3 % of WtT emissions for Qatar). As a preliminary study, an enhancement on the quality of the input/inventory data is imperative for obtaining a reliability of results. Nevertheless, the comparative analysis of different fuels and life stages provides valuable insights for stakeholders to develop effective policies and energy refueling plans for reducing life cycle GHG emissions from marine fuels. These findings could also enhance the current regulatory framework and provide meaningful lifecycle carbon footprints of marine fuels for energy importing countries. The study results also strongly suggest that default values of GHG emission for different countries relying on energy imports via international maritime transport should be further developed in consideration of the impact of regional differences, such as distance, from the importing country for successful arrival of LCA application on marine industry.

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